Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biomedical Reports,2015,1,3,104-110.
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the common complications of diabetes mellitus that has become the leading cause of endstage renal failure in many developed countries. In general, 1 of 3 diabetic patients is developing diabetic nephropathy. High blood pressure, high cholesterol and smoking are increasing the risk of development of diabetic nephropathy. Many factors involving in the development of diabetic nephropathy, which includes oxidative stress and non-enzymatic sources of oxidative stress. In early stage, diabetic nephropathy has no symptoms and it make take 5-10 years to appear the kidney damage begins. Glomerular basement membrane thickening and mesangial expansion are the main morphological features of the diabetic nephropathy. This can be treated or modified with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and antioxidants. The main objective of this review is to discuss about the pathogenesis and pharmacotherapy of diabetic nephropathy.