Dementia is said to be a major global health problem and in the absence of a cure there has been increasing focus on the risk reduction, timely diagnosis, followed by an early intervention. It is characterized by a collective syndrome rather than a specific disease. It’s an overall term that describes a wide range of symptoms associated with a decline in memory or difficulty in recollecting things, problem-solving and reduced command in language, severe enough to reduce a person’s ability to perform everyday activities. Therefore the word dementia describes a combination of symptoms which causes a decline in cognition that is significant enough to interfere with normal independent, daily performances. The causes of dementia are multifactorial ranging from primary neurological deficit, neuropsychiatric and medical conditions. Different types of dementia have been identified with different clinical manifestations and underlying pathologies. It is important to identify the factors that may delay the onset, slow the progression and prevent cognitive decline. These multiple underlying diseases may contribute to the onset of dementia on the long run. Neurodegenerative dementias, like Alzheimer disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, are most common in the elderly, while traumatic brain injury and brain tumors are common causes in younger adults. It has been an ongoing process for researchers and clinicians from various disciplines and medical specialties aggressively trying to identify the root cause attempting to treat the contributing factors by prescribing medications. The main objective is to improve cognitive decline and motor symptoms, promote evidencebased brain-healthy behaviors and improve overall quality of life for patients and families. This paper highlights several challenges that needs to be revisited and addressed in order to provide adequate and effective care for people with dementia as the condition deteriorates.